Aug 09, 2020· After ball milling for 50 h, the peaks at 2θ = 161°and 226° turn to 2θ = 199° with lower CrI (95%) suggesting the formation of cellulose II coexisted with cellulose Ӏ Besides, the crystalline structure changes to amorphous zone since the peak possesses wide 2 θ range and large FWHM (full width at half maximum)
Apr 22, 2020· The optimization of cellulose hydrolysis in a microwave reactor (MWR) in the presence of bamboo-derived sulfonated catalyst was studied through a response surface methodology (RSM) Three-factor and three-level Box-Behnken design was employed to study the effects of hydrolysis temperature, hydrolysis time, and catalyst to substrate ratio on total converted cellulose and glucose ,
Keywords Amorphous cellulose Ball milling Cellulose degradation Crystal structure Rietveld reﬁnement Introduction Cellulose is often described as a two-phase material, with both crystalline and amorphous domains It is widely thought that crystalline materials are stronger and less-reactive than their amorphous counterparts
Dec 23, 2005· The dilute acid (005 M H2SO4) hydrolysis at 175 °C of samples comprised of varying fractions of crystalline (α-form) and amorphous cellulose was studied The amorphous content, based on XRD and CP/MAS NMR, and the product (glucose) yield, based on HPLC, increased by as much as a factor of 3 upon ball milling These results are interpreted in terms of a model involving mechanical ,
Cassia fistula seeds has been utilized for the abstraction of Pb(II) ions from the aqueous environment Raw Cassia fistula seeds (RCF) and three diffe,
Amorphous cellulose-1 (pretreated by phosphoric acid) was more likely to be degraded than amorphous cellulose-2 (pretreated by ball-milling) because of the lower crystallinity, and the TRS and glucose yields reached 783% and 697%, respectively, after an 8-h reaction (Entry 9)
Sulfonated Cellulose Ball Milling Abstract this study demonstrated the technical potential for the large-scale co-production of sugars lignosulfonates cellulose and cellulose nanocrystals ball-milled woods with two particle sizes were prepared by ball milling for 80 min or 120 min bmw Details Introduction 2019-11-6in the untreated cellulose .
Apr 10, 2009· A sulfonated activated-carbon (AC-SO3H) catalyst selectively hydrolyzes cellulose with β-1,4-glycosidic bonds into glucose in the catalytic hydrothermal reactions at temperatures around 423 K The AC-SO3H catalyst with the hydrothermal pre-treatment has the excellent catalytic properties attributed to the high hydrothermal stability and the strong acid sites of sulfo functional groups
Jan 22, 2013· 高达10%返现· The consecutive pre-treatment of cellulose with periodate and bisulfite was used as a new potential method to promote nanofibrillation of hardwood pulp and to obtain nanofibrils with sulfonated functionality Nanofibrils having typical widths of 10–60 nm were obtained from sulfonated celluloses having low anionic charge densities (018–051 mmol/g) by direct high ,
Sep 15, 2020· Pang et al employed sulfonated carbon at elevated temperatures for the hydrolysis of cellulose pretreated by ball-milling for 48 h The sulfonation of the carbon materials was carried out by boiling the carbon materials in concentrated sulfuric acid (15 mL per gram of carbon) at 150–300 °C for 24 h under N 2 atmosphere
Dec 16, 2020· Table 1: Catalytic conversion of cellulose over sulfonated silica /carbonnanocomposit Reaction conditions: cellulose pretreated by ball-milling 005 g, catalyst 005 g, water 5 mL, reaction time 24 h, temperature 423 K 
Onda et al were the ﬁrst to study the conversion of Samples with three different carbon contents, viz 66, 50 and ball-mill pretreated cellulose over sulfonated activated carbon 33 wt%, were prepared by changing the concentration of the catalysts, and they achieved ,
To investigate the effect of ball mill treatment of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) on the rheological properties of MCC-polymer suspension, the structure and physicochemical characteristics of ground samples with different milling time and the rheological behaviors of MCC-starch suspensions were determined and comprehensively analyzed
Ball Milling Cellulose materials were wet ball-milled with a PQ-N2 planetary ball mill (Livingston, NJ, USA) The enzymatically treated fibers were diluted to 10 wt% and then agitated by a mechanical blender for 10 min Then 150 g of the diluted fibril slurry were put into an agate jar of 500 mL capacity
sulfonated catalyst Cellulose 611 74 min 175 20 , Reaction conditions: eucalyptus (8 g), ECG-48 h (05 g), HCl (40 ml of 120 ppm), using ball-milling combined with sonication pretreatment The reaction temperature was raised from 25 oC to 180 °C (10o/ min) for 20 min, then quickly cooled down
Kobayashi et al found that the glucose yield was 88% obtained by mixed ball-milling (60 rpm for 2 days) of catalyst (K26, the purified carbon) and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), which was much higher than that obtained by single ball-milling (300%, 60 rpm for 2 days), indicating that mixed ball-milling was more efficient than single ball .
Dec 09, 2015· Liao, Y H et al Promoting hydrolytic hydrogenation of cellulose to sugar alcohols by mixed ball milling of cellulose and solid acid catalyst Energy Fuels 28, ,
Mar 22, 2018· Aquivion PW98, sulfonated SBA-15 and sulfonated mesoporous carbon (CMK-3-SO 3 H) were either synthesized, or purchased, and initially screened as potential solid acid catalysts for the effective depolymerization of cellulose via ball-milling More information on these solid acid catalysts are provided in the supporting information (SI)
Ball-milled woods with two particle sizes were prepared by ball milling for 80min or 120min (BMW80, BMW120) and then enzymatically hydrolyzed 783% cellulose conversion of BMW120 was achieved, which was three times as high as the conversion of BMW80
24 h ball-milling pretreatment Ball-milling with 25 g of cellulose was carried out using ZrO2 balls (mass 75 g; diameter 18 cm) SEM images in Figure S3 were taken with a high resolution Scanning Electron Microscope (Philips XL-30 FEG) Fig S3 SEM characterization of Avicel® PH-101 before (a-b) and after ball-milling (c)
Aug 01, 2017· The significantly reduced Cr in further milling indicated that the sufficient ball milling treatment time or enough small particle size resulted in the effective destruction of the crystalline structure in cellulose (Zhang et al, 2015, Jiang et al, 2016) The Cr HR80 was higher than the Cr HMW, and Cr HR120 have an improvement as well
The estimated marginal means of Factor A, ie, mass ratio of milling ball to cellulose pulp, and its profile plot are shown in Table 5 and Fig 2, respectively The results disclose that the percentage of CNFs increased when the mass ratio of milling ball to cellulose pulp increased from 40% (level 1) to 60% (level 2) and finally to 80% (level 3)
Sulfonated hyperbranched polymers were recently reported to eﬃciently mimic cellulase activity, produ-cing large quantities of glucose from cellulose The polymer structure allows tuning of the acid properties , Intense ball-milling of cellulose with a solid cata-lyst, eg, together with acidic carbons, is ,
Jan 02, 2021· Ball milling with 25 g of cellulose was carried out using ZrO 2 balls (mass 75 g, diameter 18 cm) Characterization of catalysts The synthesized sucralose-derived magnetic carbon-based catalyst’s size and morphology were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis using a JSM-5600 LV microscope (ZEISS Merlin, Germany)
Ball-milled woods with two particle sizes were prepared by ball milling for 80 min or 120 min (BMW 80, BMW 120) and then enzymatically hydrolyzed 783% cellulose conversion of BMW 120 was achieved, which was three times as high as the conversion of BMW 80
A Cellulose microfibril Hemicelluloses Lignin B Cellulose elementary fibril C H-bond network A Cellulose microfibril Hemicelluloses Lignin B Cellulose elementary fibril C H-bond network Coupled pretreatment Acid-solubleAcid-soluble ligninlignin , Ball mill extrusion Solvent treatment (HPHT) +
CH2 scissoring motion in the cellulose I crystal The ball-milling allows the regular arrangement of the CH2OH group on C6 to relax into a more random one, resulting in a broader band at 1430 cm-1 Figure 4: IR spectra of cellulose before (a) and after ball-milling (b) 12 Hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose
Ball-milling induced amorphization promotes a substantially higher substrate reactivity, because homogeneous hydrolysis occurs preferentially from less ordered structural domains in cellulose In contrast, concerted ball-milling (CBM) of cellulose with the sulfonated carbon promotes a heterogeneously catalyzed hydrolysis to soluble .
Jun 01, 2019· The particle size distribution is presented in Table 1It can be seen that the D 50, namely median particle size, of microcrystalline cellulose (BM0) was far larger than that of ball-milled samplAs the increase of ball milling time from 0 to 10 min, D 50 decreased from 6167 to 2187 μm It gradually decreased with the prolonging of milling time and a minimum D 50 of 1520 μm was ,
Arrhenius plot of ethanolysis of cellulose to ethyl levulinate on 5-Cl-SHPAO Table 2S Properties of selected pure cellulose powders Properties Type cellulose Pretreatment Particle size ( m) Crystallinity (CrI%) DP (# units) Avicel PH-101 Ball-milling 57
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